Gay child adoption is completely banned in Florida and Utah only finalizes adoptions for married couples, however, other states have various levels of opportunities for nontraditional adopters like gay individuals and couples. Most of the state legislation leave gay adoption rulings to a judge and will be handled on a case-by-case basis.
One of the biggest struggles for gay adopters is being placed with a child in the first place. Just as some adoption agencies feel a single parent shouldn't be able to adopt, there are agencies that would prefer to not place a child with someone of a certain sexual orientation and have every right to refuse to do so. International agencies, which are known for their leniency on single parents and older adopters are also starting to require "proof" of having a heterosexual orientation.
Domestically, there are three options for gay adopters: stranger adoption, joint adoption, and second-parent adoption. Stranger adoption refers to a gay individual adopting a child who is not related to him or her. Joint adoption refers to adoptions in which a gay couple apply together to adopt a child, as a couple. Second-parent adoption refers to the adoption of a partner's adopted or biological children.
There's no data suggesting gay adopters are better or worse as adoptive parents than straight adoptive or biological couples. The majority of anti-gay adoption arguments rely on prejudices or traditional views of what a family is comprised of.